Used to transfer heat between the air and a refrigerant fluid, fin and tube heat exchangers are very widely across a range of domestic, commercial and industrial HVAC-R systems. The performance of fin and tube evaporators has a direct impact on the energy efficiency of these systems.
Applying nanoFLUX® coating to the internal surface of the tubes in an evaporator coil significantly increases the heat transfer coefficient with negligible impact on pressure drop. Enhancing evaporative heat transfer within the coil tubes delivers significant energy efficiency improvements, reducing utility costs. nanoFLUX also enables coils to be produced with lower cost, size and weight while maintaining the same overall performance. Due to aesthetic reasons or constraints on available space, size can be a key consideration for systems such as air-source heat pumps and retail refrigeration cabinets.
The size reductions enabled by nanoFLUX can facilitate further efficiency improvements by allowing improved air flow across the coil fins. Size reductions also lead to reductions in refrigerant charge – particularly important due to impact of F-Gas phase down regulations and the adoption of natural, flammable and mildly-flammable refrigerants.
By improving heat transfer in fin and tube evaporator coils, nanoFLUX improves the efficiency and reduces the size, weight and cost of systems for:
Combining dense parallel plate structures with sophisticated plate designs and flow patterns, brazed plate heat exchangers (BPHEs) are efficient, compact and low-maintenance solutions for numerous energy transfer applications. These include air conditioning and process chillers, heat pumps, district heating and domestic hot water, commercial and industrial refrigeration, among others. The compact size of BPHEs is critical to many applications – for example, avoiding the need for oversized service floors and elevators in high-rise buildings.
Compatible with stainless steel and applied as a post-manufacturing step, nanoFLUX boosts the heat transfer performance of the refrigerant side of BPHE evaporators. nanoFLUX enables substantial reductions in the size and weight of BPHEs, increasing the capacity of these products and extending the range of possible applications
As a result, nanoFLUX improves the efficiency and reduces the size, weight and cost of cooling and heating systems based on BPHEs, including:
Plate-and-frame, plate-and-shell and other types of plate heat exchanges have many of the benefits of BPHEs but have advantages for certain applications. Fully stainless steel plates allow the use of efficient yet aggressive refrigerants, such as ammonia. Both clean and dirty process side liquids can be supported. Semi-welded plate-and-frame units can be stripped down for cleaning and expanded for additional capacity.
nanoFLUX can be applied to stainless steel plates, cassettes or fully assembled plate heat exchangers, boosting evaporative heat transfer on the refrigerant side. As with BPHEs, nanoFLUX enables substantial reductions in the size, weight and cost of plate heat exchanges, and boosts the efficiency of efficiency of systems based on plate heat exchangers, including:
Furthermore, nanoPROTECT provides the protection needed for ammonia-based environments, potentially reducing costs and expanding the range of technologies that can address the market for ammonia systems.
By enabling a reduction in plate area, nanoFLUX results in lower refrigerant charges – particularly important for ammonia due to toxicity and related safety requirements.
Shell and tube heat exchangers are used in many comfort and industry applications for heating and cooling fluids. They consist of a cylindrical shell containing a bundle of tubes. Heat is exchanged between a fluid that flows inside the tubes and another that flows within the shell in contact with the outside the tubes. Mechanically enhanced tubes have been used for some time in order to improve the heat transfer performance of shell and tube heat evaporators.
Dry expansion shell and tube evaporators are used to cool a process fluid by transferring heat heat to a refrigerant that flows and boils within the tube bundle. Direct expansion evaporators require a low refrigerant charge and provide stable operating performance. However, it is only possible to apply limited mechanical enhancements of the internal surface of the tubes.
For dry expansion shell and tube evaporators, applying nanoFLUX to the internal surface of the tubes significantly improves the heat transfer performance on the refrigerant side. nanoFLUX is easily applied as a post-assembly manufacturing step. By improving heat transfer, nanoFLUX enables substantial reductions in the size, weight and cost of Shell and tube evaporators. This, in turn, increases the capability of these systems and extends the range of possible applications.
By improving heat transfer in shell and tube evaporator coils, nanoFLUX improves the efficiency and reduces the size, weight and cost of systems for:
The electronics and semiconductor industries continue to experience an inexorable rise in power densities, leading to an acceleration in the adoption of two-phase liquid cooling technologies. For both pumped and immersion two-phase cooling systems, cold plate performance will be critical in meeting the demand for higher heat flux levels. These demands will come from future power electronic devices, next generation processors and fast-charging battery systems for electric vehicles. The performance of two-phase cold plates can be enhanced by adding features such as micro-fin and pin structures. However, these technologies will not meet these emerging requirements for the ever-increasing levels of heat rejection.
nanoFLUX technology is the solution for high-performance and efficient cooling of high-power-density electronic devices. nanoFLUX can be applied to surfaces containing microscale surface features, including microchannel cold plates and micro-evaporators. In addition to metals such as copper and aluminium, nanoFLUX be applied to surfaces and micro-structures formed in silicon and other semiconductors – as well as ceramics.